Deming, along with messrs Juran and Crosby, developed a series of steps towards better quality management – Deming and Crosby each expressed their plan with 14 clearly defined steps, Juran with 10. I have to say I’ve never been a fan of such programmes – I’m not saying they don’t work for they clearly have worked for many organisations.
There are many similarities in approach but there are also clear differences – even direct conflicts. It would be unwise to take a pick and mix approach, not to take the ideas out of context. All three are focused on manufacturing but, with appropriate tuning, can apply to service industries as well.
Crosby’s ideas are founded 0n his zero defect approach – you set out to get things right first time every time. Setting any target other than zero defects is a plan to fail. It certainly makes sense and companies adopting his approach have been very successful.
Juran’s method is that of a stepwise, but continual improvement approach, which could be seen as an expansion of the Shewhart PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) cycle – but it’s much more. However, it is clearly goal orientated.
Deming takes a quite different – understand the problem, recognise we’re working in an imperfect environment and engage everyone.
The points are below (if not in the original wording, it’s because I’m trying to be brief). I’ll explain a bit more in a later post but, if you like what you see and want to follow something up, then go straight to the horse’s mouth; Crosby’s Quality is Free, Juran’s Quality Control Handbook or Deming’s Out of the Crisis are good places to start.
Deming’s 14 Points for Management
- Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service, with the aim to become competitive and to stay in business, and to provide jobs.
- Adopt the new philosophy.
- Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality.
- End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag.
- Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service, to improve quality and productivity, and thus constantly decrease costs.
- Institute training on the job.
- Institute leadership.
- Drive out fear, so that everyone may work effectively for the company.
- Break down barriers between departments.
- Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the work force asking for zero defects and new levels of productivity.
- Eliminate work standards (quotas) on the factory floor. Substitute leadership. Eliminate management by objective. Eliminate management by numbers, numerical goals. Substitute leadership.
- Remove barriers that rob the hourly worker of his right to pride of workmanship. Remove barriers that rob people in management and engineering of their right to pride of workmanship.
- Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement.
- Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation.
Juran’s 10 Steps to Quality Improvement
- Setting goals.
- Organising the overall programme.
- Progress reports.
- Institute an annual improvement process.
Crosby’s 14 Steps
- Management commitment.
- The Quality Improvement Team.
- Quality measurement
- The cost of quality.
- Quality awareness.
- Corrective action.
- Zero defects planning.
- Supervisor training.
- Zero Defect Day.
- Goal setting.
- Error-cause removal.
- Quality Councils.
- Do it all over again.